Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a procedure that uses magnetic fields and radiowaves to produce an image of the body in cross sections. This enables excellent images, particularly of soft tissue such as the brain and internal organs. MRI is generally used whenever X-Ray or ultrasound examinations do not deliver clear results.
Computed Tomography (CT) has witnessed a change over the past 20 years. It is said that the use of CT for applications in radiological diagnosis during the 70s sparked a revolution in the field of medical engineering. Innovative scanners, advanced applications were introduced in the CT technology that brought about exciting breakthroughs in clinical procedures that helped in addressing various public health issues. In the Indian scenario, CT technology has today become an indispensable and integral component of routine work in clinical and medical practice, specifically in radio-diagnosis and procedures such as colonography, cancer detection and staging, lung analysis, cardiac studies and radiotherapy planning.
Making the transition from analog to digital could bring several advantages to X-Ray imaging. These would include improvement in contrast and other aspects of image quality by means of image processing: radiological images could be compared more with those obtained from other imaging modalities, electronic distribution of images within hospitals could make remote access and archiving possible, highly qualified personnel could service remote or poorly populated regions from a central facility by means of 'teleradiology' and, radiologists could use computers more effectively to help with diagnosis.
Computed Radiography (CR) systems use equipment similar to conventional radiography except that in place of an X-Ray film, an imaging plate is used to create the digital image, which is then transferred to a computer.
X-Ray films are no longer taken to a darkroom or an automatic film processor to be developed in chemical tanks. With Computed Radiography, the imaging plate is run through a special laser scanner to read the image and transferred digitally to the computer to appear on the screen. The digital image can then be viewed and be contrasted or color-enhanced for better visibility.
With Computed Radiography, minor exposure faults can be corrected digitally, saving time and the danger of excessive radiation exposure to the patient.
Computed Radiography enables health workers to reproduce images on mediums other than film. Digital images can be documented on CDs, printed on high-quality paper or simply viewed on a computer monitor.
How significant is the radiation in an X-Ray?
What does one do if an X-Ray is required during pregnancy?
How long does a barium test take to perform?
In these days of hi-tech investigations, are X-Rays getting redundant?
You would be able to keep a better track on the well-being of a growing foetus and see yet-to-be-born babies yawn, suck thumbs, make faces
Life does not begin at birth, but nine months before it," points out Dr Timothy Overton, president, British Maternal and Fetal Medicine Society.
Giving due credit to this fact, the new 4D Ultrasound technology is set to come to town. This means parents-to-be in Bangalore would not only get a detailed analysis of the well-being of the growing foetus in the uterus, but will also be able to save and keep moving images of the scans on CDs or pen drives for posterity to show their children when they grow up what they looked liked when they were still in the womb.
At least 300 radiologists and obstetricians across the country are being trained at an international conference in 4D ultrasound technology which provides an in-depth understanding of the foetus' movements, its medical parameters and diagnosis.
OPG stands for Orthopantomography. It is a special method for obtaining radiographs of the teeth-bearing jaws, both upper and lower.
A regular X-ray machine cannot take detailed pictures of the jaw bones. An OPG machine is specially constructed so that it rotates around the jaw bones, thus giving us an extremely good idea about the structure of the jaw bones. Yes, X-rays are used, but the method is totally different. OPG X-rays are usually asked for by the dentists, whether they are general dentists, orthodontists, oral surgeons or prosthodontists/ implantologists. Because OPGs give a holistic view of the teeth and the adjacent bones, they are useful in a wide variety of conditions including infections, tumors, congenital abnormalities, pre-implant evaluation and trauma.
Mammography is a specific type of imaging that uses a low-dose x-ray system to examine breasts. A mammography exam, called a mammogram, is used to aid in the early detection and diagnosis of breast diseases in women.
An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging.Mammography plays a central part in early detection of breast cancers because it can show changes in the breast up to two years before a patient or physician can feel them. Current guidelines from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the American Cancer Society (ACS), the American Medical Association (AMA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) recommend screening mammography every year for women, beginning at age 40. Research has shown that annual mammograms lead to early detection of breast cancers, when they are most curable and breast-conservation therapies are available.
Breast cancer usually presents itself as a lump. Therefore a patient should regularly do a monthly self-breast examination particularly after the period is over. Sometimes there might be a bloody nipple discharge. Occasionally in 10% of the patients, is there is associated pain.
A bone mineral density (BMD) test measures how much calcium and other types of minerals are in an area of your bone. This test helps your health care provider detect osteoporosis and predict your risk of bone fractures.
Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the preferred technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). DXA has also been called dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, or DEXA. DXA is relatively easy to perform and the amount of radiation exposure is low. A DXA scanner is a machine that produces two X-ray beams, each with different energy levels. One beam is high energy while the other is low energy. The amount of X-rays that pass through the bone is measured for each beam. This will vary depending on the thickness of the bone. Based on the difference between the two beams, the bone density can be measured.
At present, DXA scanning focuses on two main areas -- the hip and spine. In certain situations -- if the hip or spine can't be measured, for instance -- it is measured in the forearm. Although osteoporosis involves the whole body, measurements of BMD at one site can be predictive of fractures at other sites. Scanning generally takes 10 to 20 minutes to complete and is painless and noninvasive.